International Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery

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Evolution of Bioprosthetic Valves, Where We Are Heading

Bioprosthetic heart valves are made from animal tissue and used to replace damaged or diseased heart valves. The first bioprosthetic valve was implanted in 1960, and since then, there have been significant advances in their design and development. Early valves were made from glutaraldehyde-preserved porcine valves and had a high risk of calcification. In the 1980s, cryopreserved porcine valves were introduced, which are less likely to calcify. Tissue-engineered heart valves, made from cells and tissues grown in the lab, are still in development but have the potential to offer longer lifespans and lower risk of rejection. Continuous research and development are happening to improve design, swing ring, cuff size, ring material, storage solution, rinsing time, anticalcification treatment, ease of implant for surgeons, and making these valves future ready for interventional procedures. Currently we are having fourth generation of these valves (Company classification). The evolution of bioprosthetic heart valves has led to improved outcomes for patients with heart valve disease. These valves are now a standard treatment option and offer a good quality of life and long-term survival. Initial results of both bovine fourth generation bioprosthetic valves Medtronic Avalus (PERIGON trial) and Edwards Inspiris resilia (COMMENCE trial) are good. The evolution of bioprosthetic heart valves is an ongoing process. As new technologies are developed, these valves are likely to become even more durable and effective.

Bioprosthetic Valves, Evolution, Bovine, Porcine, COMMENCE Trial, PERIGON Trial

APA Style

Dhanesh Kumar. (2023). Evolution of Bioprosthetic Valves, Where We Are Heading. International Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, 9(5), 63-66.

ACS Style

Dhanesh Kumar. Evolution of Bioprosthetic Valves, Where We Are Heading. Int. J. Cardiovasc. Thorac. Surg. 2023, 9(5), 63-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcts.20230905.11

AMA Style

Dhanesh Kumar. Evolution of Bioprosthetic Valves, Where We Are Heading. Int J Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2023;9(5):63-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcts.20230905.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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